The internal components of a router are:
  • ROM (Read Only Memory)
  • Flash memory
  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
  • NVRAM (Nonvolatile Random Access Memory)
These internal components store information such as the configuration of the router, software, and routing tables.

The ROM in a router contains the bootstrap program that searches for a suitable system image when the router is switched on. When the router is switched on, the ROM performs a Power-on self-test (POST) to check the hardware. The ROM also provides a monitor mode that can be used for recovering from a crisis. The information present in the ROM cannot be erased.

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Lesson: Router Startup
Topic: Internal Components

Cisco CCNA Router Configuration Basics