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Glossary: CCNA & General Networking Terms 


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Cumbra and North Lancashire Metropolitan Area Network.
Campus Wide Information System (CWIS)
A CWIS makes information and services publicly available on campus via kiosks, and makes interactive computing available via kiosks, interactive computing systems and campus networks. Services routinely include directory information, calendars, bulletin boards, databases. [Source: RFC1392]
A network in which hosts are connected to networks with varying characteristics, and the networks are interconnected by gateways (routers). The Internet is an example of a catenet. See IONL. [Source: RFC1208]
See: Coordinating Committee for Intercontinental Research Networks
See: Comite Consultatif International de Telegraphique et Telephonique
Commitment, Concurrency, and Recovery. An OSI application service element used to create atomic operations across distributed systems. Used primarily to implement two-phase commit for transactions and nonstop operations. [Source: RFC1208]
China Education and Research Network.
See: Computer Emergency Response Team
CFV (Call For Votes)
Initiates the voting period for a Usenet newsgroup. At least one (occasionally two or more) email address is customarily included as a repository for the votes.
A computed value which is dependent upon the contents of a packet. This value is sent along with the packet when it is transmitted. The receiving system computes a new checksum based upon the received data and compares this value with the one sent with the packet. If the two values are the same, the receiver has a high degree of confidence that the data was received correctly. [Source: NNSC]
Combined Higher Education Software Team negociates agreements with suppliers, especially for site licences, for the education community, thus making it the educational shop window for purchases of software, data, information, traning materials and other IT related products.
See: Classless Inter-domain Routing
circuit switching
A communications paradigm in which a dedicated communication path is established between two hosts, and on which all packets travel. The telephone system is an example of a circuit switched network. See also: connection-oriented, connectionless, packet switching. [Source: RFC1392]
The fee-based Usenet newsfeed available from ClariNet Communications.
Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR)
A proposal, set forth in RFC 1519, to allocate IP addresses so as to allow the addresses to be aggregated when advertised as routes. It is based on the elimination of intrinsic IP network addresses; that is, the determination of the network address based on the first few bits of the IP address. See also: IP address, network address, supernet. [Source: RFC1983]
River Clyde area's Metropolitan Area Network.
A computer system or process that requests a service of another computer system or process. A workstation requesting the contents of a file from a file server is a client of the file server. See also: client-server model, server. [Source: NNSC]
client-server model
A common way to describe the paradigm of many network protocols. Examples include the name-server/name-resolver relationship in DNS and the file-server/file-client relationship in NFS. See also: client, server, Domain Name System, Network File System. [Source: RFC1392]
Connectionless Network Protocol. The OSI protocol for providing the OSI Connectionless Network Service (datagram service). CLNP is the OSI equivalent to Internet IP, and is sometimes called ISO IP. [Source: RFC1208]
Connectionless Transport Protocol. Provides for end-to-end Transport data addressing (via Transport selector) and error control (via checksum), but cannot guarantee delivery or provide flow control. The OSI equivalent of UDP. [Source: RFC1208]
Common Management Information Protocol. The OSI network management protocol. [Source: RFC1208]
CMIP Over TCP. An effort to use the OSI network management protocol to manage TCP/IP networks. [Source: RFC1208]
Canonical Name (alternative name for a host) in Domain Name Service.
See: Coalition for Networked Information
Coalition for Networked Information (CNI)
A consortium formed by American Research Libraries, CAUSE, and EDUCOM (no, they are not acronyms) to promote the creation of, and access to, information resources in networked environments in order to enrich scholarship and enhance intellectual productivity. [Source: RFC1392]
Coloured Books
set of standard protocols and recommendations for the different aspects of networking software developed and used by the UK academic and research community. Now superseded by Internet protocols. See also protocol.
Comite Consultatif International de Telegraphique et Telephonique
(CCITT) This organization is part of the United National International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and is responsible for making technical recommendations about telephone and data communications systems. Every four years CCITT holds plenary sessions where they adopt new standards; the most recent was in 1992. Recently, the ITU reorganized and CCITT was renamed the ITU-T. See also: International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications. [Source: RFC1983]
Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT)
The CERT was formed by DARPA in November 1988 in response to the needs exhibited during the Internet worm incident. The CERT charter is to work with the Internet community to facilitate its response to computer security events involving Internet hosts, to take proactive steps to raise the community's awareness of computer security issues, and to conduct research targeted at improving the security of existing systems. CERT products and services include 24-hour technical assistance for responding to computer security incidents, product vulnerability assistance, technical documents, and tutorials. In addition, the team maintains a number of mailing lists (including one for CERT Advisories), and provides an anonymous FTP server, at "", where security-related documents and tools are archived. The CERT may be reached by email at "" and by telephone at +1-412-268-7090 (24-hour hotline). See also: Advanced Research Projects Agency, worm. [Source: RFC1392]
Congestion occurs when the offered load exceeds the capacity of a data communication path. [Source: RFC1392]
The data communication method in which communication proceeds through three well-defined phases: connection establishment, data transfer, connection release. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. See also: circuit switching, connectionless, packet switching, Transmission Control Protocol. [Source: RFC1392]
The data communication method in which communication occurs between hosts with no previous setup. Packets between two hosts may take different routes, as each is independent of the other. UDP is a connectionless protocol. See also: circuit switching, connection-oriented, packet switching, User Datagram Protocol. [Source: RFC1392]
Coordinating Committee for Intercontinental Research Networks (CCIRN)
A committee that includes the United States FNC and its counterparts in North America and Europe. Co-chaired by the executive directors of the FNC and the European Association of Research Networks (RARE), the CCIRN provides a forum for cooperative planning among the principal North American and European research networking bodies. See also: Federal Networking Council, RARE. [Source: MALAMUD]
core gateway
Historically, one of a set of gateways (routers) operated by the Internet Network Operations Center at Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN). The core gateway system formed a central part of Internet routing in that all groups must advertise paths to their networks from a core gateway. [Source: MALAMUD]
Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (CREN)
This organization was formed in October 1989, when Bitnet and CSNET (Computer + Science NETwork) were combined under one administrative authority. CSNET is no longer operational, but CREN still runs Bitnet. See also: Bitnet. [Source: NNSC]
Corporation for Open Systems. A vendor and user group for conformance testing, certification, and promotion of OSI products. [Source: RFC1208]
Cooperation for Open Systems Interconnection Networking in Europe. A program sponsored by the European Commission, aimed at using OSI to tie together European research networks. [Source: RFC1208]
Core Point of Presence on JANET backbone.
A cracker is an individual who attempts to access computer systems without authorization. These individuals are often malicious, as opposed to hackers, and have many means at their disposal for breaking into a system. See also: hacker, Computer Emergency Response Team, Trojan Horse, virus, worm. [Source: RFC1392]
See: cyclic redundancy check
See: Corporation for Research and Educational Networking
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. The access method used by local area networking technologies such as Ethernet. [Source: RFC1208]
Computer+Science Network. Formerly a large computer network, mostly in the U.S. but with international connections. CSNET sites included universities, research labs, and some commercial companies. Now merged with BITNET to form CREN. See Corporation for Research and Educational Networking. [Source: RFC1208]
Pronnounced "See you, See me," CU-SeeMe is a publicly available videoconferencing program developed at Cornell University. It allows anyone with audio/video capabilites and an Internet connection to videoconference with anyone else with the same capabilities. It also allows multiple people to tie into the same videoconference. [Source: RFC1983]
See: Campus Wide Information system
A term coined by William Gibson in his fantasy novel Neuromancer to describe the "world" of computers, and the society that gathers around them. [Source: ZEN]
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
A number derived from a set of data that will be transmitted. By recalculating the CRC at the remote end and comparing it to the value originally transmitted, the receiving node can detect some types of transmission errors. [Source: MALAMUD]


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