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Glossary: CCNA & General Networking Terms 


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ITU-T standard for physical and logical traits of transmissions over digital circuits, including US 1.544Mbit/s and European 2.048Mbit/s (typically used to refer to the latter).
Gatedaemon. A program which supports multiple routing protocols and protocol families. It may be used for routing, and makes an effective platform for routing protocol research. The software is freely available by anonymous FTP from "". Pronounced "gate-dee". See also: Exterior Gateway Protocol, Open Shortest Path First..., Routing Information Protocol, routed. Source: RFC1983]
The term "router" is now used in place of the original definition of "gateway". Currently, a gateway is a communications device/program which passes data between networks having similar functions but dissimilar implementations. This should not be confused with a protocol converter. By this definition, a router is a layer 3 (network layer) gateway, and a mail gateway is a layer 7 (application layer) gateway. See also: mail gateway, router, protocol converter. [Source: RFC1392]
Gigabits (thousand million - or strictly 2 to the power 30 - bits) per second.
A development from the former TEN-155 pan-European research network, creating a core network and access links to countries at Gigabit speeds.
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
An ETSI standard for packet-based wireless data communications at speeds up to a theoretical 171 kilobits per second, for continuous connection to the Internet, for portable computers and mobile phones. Addition of Virtual Private Network facilities will allow a degree of security for mobile access to important data. GPRS is based on the Global System for Mobile infrastructure, using up to 8 time slots (provided for 8 voice calls on a given frequency) only when there is information to transmit, rather than completely reserved as in a voice circuit. GPRS is being developed into Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), using a new modulation scheme for higher data rates up to 384 kilobits per second, as a step on the way to Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS). See also: Virtual Private Network.
Global System for Mobile communications
An ETSI standard for second generation digital cellular wireless voice and data communications using time division multiple access transmission methods. Formerly known as Groupe Spécial Mobile, which was the study group of the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) set up to develop a pan-European system for terrestrial mobiles.
A distributed information service developed at the University of Minnesota, that makes available hierarchical collections of information across the Internet. Gopher uses a simple protocol, defined in RFC 1436, that allows a single Gopher client to access information from any accessible Gopher server, providing the user with a single "Gopher space" of information. Public domain versions of the client and server are available. See also: archie, archive site, Prospero, Wide Area Information Servers. [Source: RFC1392]
See: Government OSI Profile
Government OSI Profile
A subset of OSI standards specific to U.S. Government procurements, designed to maximize interoperability in areas where plain OSI standards are ambiguous or allow excessive options. [Source: BIG-LAN]
See: General Packet Radio Service
Green Book
the document listing recommendations on the use of Triple-X and the definition of the TS29 protocol, formerly used in UK Universities.
Grey Book
the document describing the JNT Interim Mail Protocol used in the UK for mail transfers. Mostly superseded by Internet mail protocols such as SMTP (q.v.).
A dozen dozen (144).
See: Global System for Mobile communications
Graphical User Interface, typically consisting of windows, menus and pointer (e.g. mouse) hence WIMP.


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