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Glossary: CCNA & General Networking Terms 


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A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal workings of a system, computers and computer networks in particular. The term is often misused in a pejorative context, where "cracker" would be the correct term. See also: cracker. [Source: RFC1392]
High level Data Link Control, ISO standard for carrying data over a link with error and flow control.
The portion of a packet, preceding the actual data, containing source and destination addresses, and error checking and other fields. A header is also the part of an electronic mail message that precedes the body of a message and contains, among other things, the message originator, date and time. See also: Electronic Mail, packet, error checking. [Source: RFC1392]
heterogeneous network
A network running multiple network layer protocols. See also: DECnet, IP, IPX, XNS, homogeneous network. [Source: RFC1983]
hierarchical routing
The complex problem of routing on large networks can be simplified by reducing the size of the networks. This is accomplished by breaking a network into a hierarchy of networks, where each level is responsible for its own routing. The Internet has, basically, three levels: the backbones, the mid-levels, and the stub networks. The backbones know how to route between the mid-levels, the mid-levels know how to route between the sites, and each site (being an autonomous system) knows how to route internally. See also: Autonomous System, Exterior Gateway Protocol, Interior Gateway Protocol, stub network, transit network. [Source: RFC1392]
High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC)
High performance computing encompasses advanced computing, communications, and information technologies, including scientific workstations, supercomputer systems, high speed networks, special purpose and experimental systems, the new generation of large scale parallel systems, and application and systems software with all components well integrated and linked over a high speed network. [Source: HPCC]
High Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI)
An emerging ANSI standard which extends the computer bus over fairly short distances at speeds of 800 and 1600 Mb/s. HIPPI is often used in a computer room to connect a supercomputer to routers, frame buffers, mass-storage peripherals, and other computers. See also: American National Standards Institute [Source: MALAMUD]
High Performance radio Local Area Network, an ESTI standard EN 300 652 for high speed data communications at 20Mbit/s in the 5GHz range, either between portable devices or as an extension of a wired network infrastructure. There is a development to produce HIPERLAN2, which can be used for 3G mobile phone core networks as well as 54Mbit/s data networks in the 5GHz radio range. See also 802.11, Wireless Local Area Network.
See: High Performance Parallel Interface
homogeneous network
A network running a single network layer protocol. See also: DECnet, IP, IPX, XNS, heterogeneous network. [Source: RFC1983]
A term used in routing. A path to a destination on a network is a series of hops, through routers, away from the origin. [Source: RFC1392]
A computer that allows users to communicate with other host computers on a network. Individual users communicate by using application programs, such as electronic mail, Telnet and FTP. [Source: NNSC]
host address
See: internet address
The name given to a machine. See also: Fully Qualified Domain Name. [Source: ZEN]
host number
See: host address
See: High Performance Computing and Communications
See: Hypertext Markup Language
See: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
A device connected to several other devices. In ARCnet, a hub is used to connect several computers together. In a message handling service, a hub is used for the transfer of messages across the network. [Source: MALAMUD]
A pointer within a hypertext document which points (links) to another document, which may or may not also be a hypertext document. See also: hypertext. [Source: RFC1983]
A document, written in HTML, which contains hyperlinks to other documents, which may or may not also be hypertext documents. Hypertext documents are usually retrieved using WWW. See also: hyperlink, Hypertext Markup Language, World Wide Web. [Source: RFC1983]
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
The language used to create hypertext documents. It is a subset of SGML and includes the mechanisms to establish hyperlinks to other documents. See also: hypertext, hyperlink, Standardized General Markup Language. [Source: RFC1983]
Hypertext Markup Protocol (HTTP)
The protocol used by WWW to transfer HTML files. A formal standard is still under development in the IETF. See also: hyperlink, hypertext, Hypertext Markup Language, World Wide Web. [Source: RFC1983]


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