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Glossary: CCNA & General Networking Terms 

 

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I-D
See: Internet-Draft
IAB
See: Internet Architecture Board
IANA
See: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
ICANN
See: Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers and Names
ICMP
See: Internet Control Message Protocol
ICT
Information and Communications Technologies (or variations thereof, sometimes CIT).
IEAK
Internet Explorer Administration Kit (Microsoft).
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEEE 802
See: 802.x
IEN
See: Internet Experiment Note
IESG
See: Internet Engineering Steering Group
IETF
See: Internet Engineering Task Force
IINREN
See: Interagency Interim National Research and Education Network
IIS
Internet Information Service (Microsoft).
IGP
See: Interior Gateway Protocol
IGRP
Internet Gateway Routing Protocol. A proprietary IGP used by cisco System's routers. [Source: RFC1208]
IMAP
See: Internet Message Access Protocol
IMHO
"In My Humble Opinion"; usually accompanies a statement that may bring about personal offense or strong disagreement. Rarely used in Yorkshire, where opinions are anything but humble, especially about cricket or rugby.
IMR
See: Internet Monthly Report
INTAP
Interoperability Technology Association for Information Processing. The technical organization which has the official charter to develop Japanese OSI profiles and conformance tests. [Source: RFC1208]
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
An emerging technology which is beginning to be offered by the telephone carriers of the world. ISDN combines voice and digital network services in a single medium, making it possible to offer customers digital data services as well as voice connections through a single "wire". The standards that define ISDN are specified by CCITT. See also: CCITT. [Source: RFC1208]
Interagency Interim National Research and Education Network (IINREN)
An evolving operating network system. Near term (1992-1996) research and development activities will provide for the smooth evolution of this networking infrastructure into the future gigabit NREN. [Source: HPCC]
Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)
A protocol which distributes routing information to the routers within an autonomous system. The term "gateway" is historical, as "router" is currently the preferred term. See also: Autonomous System, Exterior Gateway Protocol, Open Shortest Path First..., Routing Information Protocol. [Source: RFC1392]
Intermediate System (IS)
An OSI system which performs network layer forwarding, i.e. not an end system. It is analogous to an IP router. See also: Open Systems Interconnection, router. [Source: RFC1392]
Intermediate System-Intermediate System (IS-IS)
The OSI IGP. See also: Open Systems Interconnection, Interior Gateway Protocol. [Source: RFC1392]
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
A voluntary, nontreaty organization founded in 1946 which is responsible for creating international standards in many areas, including computers and communications. Its members are the national standards organizations of the 89 member countries, including ANSI for the U.S. See also: American National Standards Institute, Open Systems Interconnection. [Source: TAN]
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
An agency of the United Nations which coordinates the various national telecommunications standards so that people in one country can communicate with people in another country. [Source: RFC1983]
International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications (ITU-T)
The new name for CCITT since the ITU reorganization. The function is the same; only the name has been changed. [Source: RFC1983]
internet
While an internet is a network, the term "internet" is usually used to refer to a collection of networks interconnected with routers. See also: network. [Source: RFC1392]
Internet
(note the capital "I") The Internet is the largest internet in the world. Is a three level hierarchy composed of backbone networks (e.g., Ultranet), mid-level networks (e.g., NEARnet) and stub networks. The Internet is a multiprotocol internet. See also: backbone, mid-level network, stub network, transit network, Internet Protocol. [Source: RFC1983]
internet address
A IP address that uniquely identifies a node on an internet. An Internet address (capital "I"), uniquely identifies a node on the Internet. See also: internet, Internet, IP address. [Source: RFC1392]
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The IAB has been many things over the years. Originally the Internet Activities Board, it was responsible for the development of the protocols which make up the Internet. It later changed its name and charter to become the group most responsible for the architecture of the Internet, leaving the protocol details to the IESG. In June of 1992, it was chartered as a component of the Internet Society; this is the charter it holds today. The IAB is responsible for approving nominations to the IESG, architectural oversight for Internet Standard Protocols, IETF standards process oversight and appeals, IANA and RFC activities, and liaison to peer standards groups (e.g., ISO). See also: Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Research Task Force, Internet Engineering Steering Group, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Request for Comments. [Source: RFC1983]
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
The central registry for various Internet protocol parameters, such as port, protocol and enterprise numbers, and options, codes and types. The currently assigned values are listed in the "Assigned Numbers" document [STD2]. To request a number assignment, contact the IANA at "iana@isi.edu". Now superseded by ICANN. See also: assigned numbers, STD. [Source: RFC1983]
Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers and Names (ICANN)
Successor to Internet Assigned Numbers Authority for Internet management functions performed under contract to US Government.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
ICMP is an extension to the Internet Protocol. It allows for the generation of error messages, test packets and informational messages related to IP. It is defined in STD 5, RFC 792. [Source: FYI4]
Internet-Draft (I-D)
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the IETF, its Areas, and its Working Groups. As the name implies, Internet-Drafts are draft documents. They are valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. Very often, I-Ds are precursors to RFCs. See also: Internet Engineering Task Force, Request For Comments. [Source: RFC1392]
Internet Engineering Planning Group (IEPG)
A group, primarily composed of Internet service operators, whose goal is to promote a globally coordinated Internet operating environment. Membership is open to all. [Source: RFC1983]
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The IESG is composed of the IETF Area Directors and the IETF Chair. It provides the first technical review of Internet standards and is responsible for day-to-day "management" of the IETF. See also: Internet Engineering Task Force. [Source: RFC1392]
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The IETF is a large, open community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers whose purpose is to coordinate the operation, management and evolution of the Internet, and to resolve short-range and mid-range protocol and architectural issues. It is a major source of proposals for protocol standards which are submitted to the IAB for final approval. The IETF meets three times a year and extensive minutes are included in the IETF Proceedings. See also: Internet, Internet Architecture Board. [Source: FYI4]
Internet Experiment Note (IEN)
A series of reports pertinent to the Internet. IENs were published in parallel to RFCs and were intended to be "working documents." They have been replaced by Internet-Drafts and are currently of historic value only. See also: Internet-Draft, Request For Comments. [Source: RFC1392]
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
A protocol defined by RFC2060 and others, allowing a client to read and manipulate electronic mail messages and message folders (mailboxes) on a server.
Internet Monthly Report (IMR)
Published monthly, the purpose of the Internet Monthly Reports is to communicate to the Internet Research Group the accomplishments, milestones reached, or problems discovered by the participating organizations. [Source: RFC1392]
internet number
See: internet address
Internet Protocol (IP, IPv4)
The Internet Protocol (version 4), defined in RFC 791, is the network layer for the TCP/IP Protocol Suite. It is a connectionless, best-effort packet switching protocol. See also: packet switching, TCP/IP Protocol Suite, Internet Protocol Version 6. [Source: RFC1983]
Internet Protocol security (IPsec)
A packet layer security standard consisting of Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) elements, defined in RFC 2402 and RFC 2406 respectively. Useful for Virtual Private Networks.
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPng, IPv6)
IPv6 (version 5 is a stream protocol used for special applications) is a new version of the Internet Protocol which is designed to be an evolutionary step from its predecessor, version 4. There are many RFCs defining various portions of the protocol, its auxiliary protocols, and the transition plan from IPv4. The core RFCs are 1883, 1884, 1885 and 1886; also updated at RFC2460. The name IPng (IP next generation) is a nod to STNG (Star Trek Next Generation). [Source: RFC1392]
Internet Registry (IR)
The IANA has the discretionary authority to delegate portions of its responsibility and, with respect to network address and Autonomous System identifiers, has lodged this responsibility with an IR. The IR function is performed by the DDN NIC. See also: Autonomous System, network address, Defense Data Network..., Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. [Source: RFC1392]
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
A world-wide "party line" protocol that allows one to converse with others in real time. IRC is structured as a network of servers, each of which accepts connections from client programs, one per user. See also: talk. [Source: HACKER]
Internet Research Steering Group (IRSG)
The "governing body" of the IRTF. See also: Internet Research Task Force. [Source: MALAMUD]
Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)
The IRTF is chartered by the IAB to consider long-term Internet issues from a theoretical point of view. It has Research Groups, similar to IETF Working Groups, which are each tasked to discuss different research topics. Multi-cast audio/video conferencing and privacy enhanced mail are samples of IRTF output. See also: Internet Architecture Board, Internet Engineering Task Force, Privacy Enhanced Mail. [Source: RFC1392]
Internet Society (ISOC)
The Internet Society is a non-profit, professional membership organization which facilitates and supports the technical evolution of the Internet, stimulates interest in and educates the scientific and academic communities, industry and the public about the technology, uses and applications of the Internet, and promotes the development of new applications for the system. The Society provides a forum for discussion and collaboration in the operation and use of the global Internet infrastructure. The Internet Society publishes a quarterly newsletter, the Internet Society News, and holds an annual conference, INET. The development of Internet technical standards takes place under the auspices of the Internet Society with substantial support from the Corporation for National Research Initiatives under a cooperative agreement with the US Federal Government. [Source: V. Cerf]
Internetwork Packet eXchange (IPX)
Novell's protocol used by Netware. A router with IPX routing can interconnect LANs so that Novell Netware clients and servers can communicate. See also: Local Area Network. [Source: RFC1392]
InterNIC
A five year project, partially supported by the National Science Foundation, to provide network information services to the networking community. The InterNIC began operations in April of 1993 and is now a collaborative project of two organizations: AT&T, which provides Directory and Database Services from South Plainsfield, NJ; and Network Solutions, Inc., which provides Registration Services from their headquarters in Herndon, VA. Services are provided via the Internet, and by telephone, FAX, and hardcopy. [Source: RFC1983]
interoperability
The ability of software and hardware on multiple machines from multiple vendors to communicate meaningfully. [Source: RFC1392]
IONL
Internal Organization of the Network Layer. The OSI standard for the detailed architecture of the Network Layer. Basically, it partitions the Network layer into subnetworks interconnected by convergence protocols (equivalent to internetworking protocols), creating what Internet calls a catenet or internet. [Source: RFC1208]
IP (IPv4)
See: Internet Protocol
IP address
The 32-bit address defined by the Internet Protocol in RFC 791. It is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. See also: dot address, internet address, Internet Protocol, network address, subnet address, host address. [Source: RFC1392]
IP datagram
See: datagram
IPng (IPv6)
See: Internet Protocol Version 6
IPsec
See: Internet Protocol security
IPX
See: Internetwork Packet eXchange
IR
See: Internet Registry
IRC
See: Internet Relay Chat
IRSG
See: Internet Research Steering Group
IRTF
See: Internet Research Task Force
IS
See: Intermediate System
IS-IS
See: Intermediate System-Intermediate System
ISDN
See: Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO
See: International Organization for Standardization
ISO Development Environment (ISODE)
Software that allows OSI services to use a TCP/IP network. Pronounced eye-so-dee-eee. See also: Open Systems Interconnection, TCP/IP Protocol Suite. [Source: RFC1392]
ISOC
See: Internet Society
ISODE
See: ISO Development Environment
ISP
Internet Service Provider, a purveyor of access to the Internet.

 

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